The Systematic Process of PCB Assembly

PCB’s or printed circuit boards are utilized in various electronic and mechanical devices. It allows a device or machine to function through the electrical connections and components attached on the printed wiring board. PCB assembly is a long and systematic process, and the following are the steps involved in it.

1.PBC CAM

This is the first step in manufacturing PCB’s. It involves input and verification of data, and output of digital tools with the use of computer aided manufacturing (CAM) software.

2.Panelization 

A panel is a large board of grouped PCB’s for manufacturing. It typically has a single design but there are instances where a panel has mixed, multiple designs. The panel will be broken apart in a process called depaneling, and nowadays depaneling makes use of laser technology. Lasers can cut the panel without contact; thus, using them is more efficient as it decreases pressure on the fragile circuits.

3.Copper patterning

PCB

The pattern on the CAM system will be replicated on the copper foil with protective mask. Various patterning methods like silk screen printing, photoengraving, PCB milling, and laser resist ablation can be used depending on the volume of boards to be produced.

4.Subtractive, additive, semi-additive process

In the subtractive method, the copper is removed from the board that is entirely covered with copper. Only the desired copper pattern will be left. On the other hand, the additive and semi-additive method involve the use of film and mask. With the use of various chemical processes, the laminate will be coated with copper in the triggered areas, then the mask will be stripped.

5.Chemical etching

Makes use of chemicals like ferric chloride or ammonium per sulfate. Large scale production makes use of other chemical etching methods like splash etching and spray etching.

6.Inner layer inspection

An automatic optical inspection (AOI) that is done by scanning the board and comparing it with the digital image of the original data. This process is important; any mistake cannot be repaired or changed on the PCB assembly after lamination.

7.Lamination

It involves the use of heat and pressure for a certain period that results into an inseparable piece.

8.Drilling

It is the process of placing holes in the board. It makes use of automated drilling machines that accurately drill holes, but in cases where micro vias are required, manufacturers use laser.

9.Coating and solder masking

PCB’s are coated with solder, gold, or tin.

10.Legend printing

On one or both sides of the board, a legend must be printed to guide in the PCB assembly and testing.

11.Bare-board testing

Before other electronic components are placed on the board, it will be tested for any missing or wrong connection.

12.Solder paste printing 

With the use of stencil, the primary solder paste is printed on the PCB.

13.Component placement and attachment

The chips and other electronic components are placed and attached on the PCB.

14.Re flow

The PCB assembly will be placed on a re flow oven to melt the solder and fix the components on the board.

15.Conformal coating

For an additional protective layer, selective coating machines can precisely coat PCB’s.

16.Inspection

Automated inspection for quality assurance is important. PCB manufacturers use automatic optical inspection (AOI) and automated x-ray inspection (AXI) to check flaws.

17.Reworking 

PBC’s will undergo this process if there are defects found. The board will be heated and components will be removed.

18.Testing

Once PCB’s passed inspection or after reworking is done, it will undergo several tests like functional test, in-circuit test, power-off testing, as well as quality control.

19.Protection and packaging 

Since PCB’s are sensitive to static it must be well-protected and packaged in anti-static bags before delivery.

Author Bio
The challenges can be easily addressed only if the chosen partner company for the PCB assembly has an untarnished reputation for expertise and experience. Our passion is to fulfill our customer’s requirements with an excellent response time.   

Golf Shoes in Any Weather

The sport of golf is considered to be one of the most traditional since the rules and regulations have not been significantly changed in the last decade or so. This is because most of the game modifications are coming from the dress codes implemented by the various golf clubs in the world. The goal of having a dress code requirement, which may even involve golf shoes, in the golf course is to attract a high number of participants.

golf shoes

Most country clubs only require that golf participants wear appropriate footwear when playing on the course. New golfers may prefer to wear any comfortable pair of shoes when playing while professionals recommend the use of appropriate golf shoes.

The reason for this is that golf shoes are designed for various people, ranging from the traditionalists to the more casual players.

Some of the most common styles include leather shoes with tassels and the more casual moccasins.

Preference by Men Golfers

Most men golf players prefer the more traditional style where the entire foot is covered with a leather material. The main consideration for most professional players is that these shoes must be comfortable. The purpose of having a comfortable fit is that professionals and new players alike will be using these for long walks between holes. Only a limited number of golf players will make use of golf carts to travel between holes since the main point of this sport is to exercise.

Most golf footwear is perceived to last a minimum of a year, depending on the weather and the number of times used. Professionals reveal that some shoes only last for 15 months before the upper portion comes away from the sole. This is because some players use these shoes during the rainy season and therefore, are considered to be significantly roughed up. Some professionals reveal that good-quality ones can last up to a maximum of 200 rounds of golf.

Shoes for Wet-Season Playing

It is recommended that dedicated golf players buy a good-quality shoe, especially if they are planning to play during the wet season. However, most golf players believe that traditional shoe designs are heavy and unattractive, as well as hinder their performance. These design problems have resulted in the redevelopment of the shoes, making it not only more lightweight and functional but also more stylish (for photo opportunities). Therefore, the best shoes for playing in wet weather are those that are designed to be waterproof, sturdy, and have good traction.

The most common modifications in these shoes is that shoe manufacturers have included a better designed spike on the bottom of the shoe by using molded cleats, traction lugs, and nubs, instead of the traditional spikes. The purpose of these is to enhance the control of the golfer in regards to his stance and swing, especially if the course had become rather slippery. This is due to the fact that a significant amount of rain will turn most golf courses into a muddy path. Therefore, dedicated players will need to purchase footwear with better traction to enhance both their walking and playing stance.

shoesSome shoe manufacturers from the previous decade have already sacrificed the comfort of the golfer in order to improve traction during the wet season. But most golf-shoe manufacturers nowadays have developed more functional golf shoes that can be used in all types of weather, as well as in enhancing walking comfort. Spike-less shoes are considered to be popular among amateurs and even among professionals, since they can be used on just about any kind of terrain. In other words, they could even be worn before and after a game.

Loading tips for storage containers

If you have ever tried moving to a new home or workplace — especially, if you are bringing along an entire family or business — without the help of a moving service, you would know how difficult it is. In fact, you would most likely think that the p17moving service fees you saved are not worth the additional time and effort that you had to put in. Truly, when you move, you are not only starting a new beginning — you are also starting a journey that puts your time, possessions, and even safety on the line. And the moment you must have thought of this the most is when you tried to walk the plank juggling an obscenely heavy couch, just to get it to that waiting moving van you rented.

Despite this realization, there will always be the urge to save, especially in this economy. Since this is the case, it is time to turn to another, more cost-effective tool that has done wonders in moving and storage — portable storage containers. These containers are the simplest and yet most versatile solution to the problem that has been there ever since man decided he needed to be somewhere else.

These storage containers are large steel (also plastic or wood) boxes that are specially made to keep your valuables secure. They are made to be at ground-level, making the loading and unloading of heavy appliances easier. These are also sturdy and watertight, with an additional layer of protection making it truly weather-proof. And of course, you hold the key throughout each step of the way, making sure no one can tamper with your life’s investments.

Since you will be doing the packing yourself,

it is important to make sure you know how to optimize the space. Depending on the container size you are renting, storage containers can generally carry from 1,000 to 3,000 cubic feet of items. This means a single box can give you a few room’s worth of space.

When arranging, start with the heaviest appliances — your refrigerators, wardrobes, washing storage_container (1)machines, dishwashers, gas ranges, etc. These will be the “base” of your packing. Try to keep them together as much as possible, and use the loading straps to secure the sections. Remember that storage containers are highly customizable, so you can have these attached if none are originally provided.

Next, load the boxes in between the unfilled spaces.

This will be your second section, ensuring that the items do not shift around along the way. Make sure that these boxes are completely filled. You may use paper or bubble wrap to pad the items when needed.

Lastly, load the lighter items at the top. Make sure to always stack from the floor of the container all the way up to the ceiling. Load the mattresses last as a means to provide the overall load some added stability.

Following this technique, using your storage container should be a breeze. Of course, make sure to ask the company you are hiring what amenities their boxes offer — you may opt for add-ons such as translucent roofs, modified doors, and the like.

The storage container industry has been a very competitive market for quite some time, despite it being carved by essentially a single company. In the end, it will be up to you to look for a service provider you can trust for those moments of the journey when the container is not in sight (you wouldn’t want to worry, would you?). Also, experience and customer service can weigh far more than any technical aspect attached to the boxes themselves.